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Regulatory

The government constructs a legal regime around data’s types and/or uses.

Nations should adapt their legal frameworks in recognition of the risks and potential harms of rapid data-driven change, as well as to attempt to take advantage of the benefits. They should not only delineate how they see data and plan to use it in strategies and visions, but take the next step and translate these ideas into laws and regulations. Here we are interested in binding acts of state, which includes laws but can also include executive orders, directives, decrees, regulations, administrative codes, proclamations, etc., so long as it is mandatory, binding, and enforceable. We are interested in comprehensive, general laws rather than sector-specific. If a law has passed but is not yet in force, we count it.

Country Region Income category Attribute 2 Score Personal Data Protection Law Open Data Law for the Proactive Release of Government Information Freedom of Information Law Right to be Protected from Automated Decision-Making Right to Data Portability
United Kingdom Europe & Central Asia High income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Australia East Asia & Pacific High income 80 1 1 1 0 1
Germany Europe & Central Asia High income 100 1 1 1 1 1
New Zealand East Asia & Pacific High income 80 1 1 1 0 1
Netherlands Europe & Central Asia High income 100 1 1 1 1 1
France Europe & Central Asia High income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Spain Europe & Central Asia High income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Sweden Europe & Central Asia High income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Estonia Europe & Central Asia High income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Japan East Asia & Pacific High income 60 1 1 1 0 0
European Union Europe & Central Asia 100 1 1 1 1 1
Italy Europe & Central Asia High income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Canada North America High income 40 0 1 1 0 0
Brazil Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Ireland Europe & Central Asia High income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Norway Europe & Central Asia High income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Finland Europe & Central Asia High income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Poland Europe & Central Asia High income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Singapore East Asia & Pacific High income 40 1 0 0 0 1
South Korea East Asia & Pacific High income 60 1 1 1 0 0
United States North America High income 40 0 1 1 0 0
Switzerland Europe & Central Asia High income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Uruguay Latin America & Caribbean High income 60 1 0 1 1 0
Panama Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Argentina Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 80 1 1 1 1 0
Mexico Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 80 1 1 1 1 0
China East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income 80 0 1 1 1 1
Israel Middle East & North Africa High income 60 1 1 1 0 0
Colombia Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 40 1 0 1 0 0
Hungary Europe & Central Asia High income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Peru Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 60 1 0 1 1 0
Ukraine Europe & Central Asia Lower middle income 60 1 0 1 1 0
Thailand East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income 60 1 0 1 0 1
Taiwan East Asia & Pacific High income 40 1 0 1 0 0
Turkey Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income 60 1 1 1 0
Philippines East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income 60 1 0 1 0 1
Chile Latin America & Caribbean High income 60 1 1 1 0 0
Saudi Arabia Middle East & North Africa High income 20 1 0 0 0 0
Kenya Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income 80 1 0 1 1 1
Malaysia East Asia & Pacific Upper middle income 20 0 1 0 0 0
Indonesia East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
South Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income 60 1 0 1 1 0
Ghana Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income 40 1 0 1 0 0
United Arab Emirates Middle East & North Africa High income 20 1 0 0 0 0
Albania Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income 60 1 0 1 1 0
India South Asia Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Jordan Middle East & North Africa Upper middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Ecuador Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 100 1 1 1 1 1
Costa Rica Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 40 1 1 0 0 0
Russia Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income 60 1 0 1 1 0
Georgia Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income 60 1 1 1 0 0
Vietnam East Asia & Pacific Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Mauritius Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income 40 1 0 0 1 0
Morocco Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income 60 1 0 1 1 0
Côte d’Ivoire Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income 40 1 0 1 0 0
Uganda Sub-Saharan Africa Low income 60 1 0 1 1 0
Bangladesh South Asia Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Nigeria Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Tunisia Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income 40 1 0 1 0 0
Ethiopia Sub-Saharan Africa Low income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Pakistan South Asia Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Azerbaijan Europe & Central Asia Upper middle income 40 1 0 1 0 0
Bolivia Latin America & Caribbean Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Egypt Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income 20 1 0 0 0 0
Iran Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Algeria Middle East & North Africa Lower middle income 20 1 0 0 0 0
Botswana Sub-Saharan Africa Upper middle income 20 1 0 0 0 0
Tanzania Sub-Saharan Africa Lower middle income 20 0 0 1 0 0
Cuba Latin America & Caribbean Upper middle income 20 1 0 0 0 0
Indicator 1
Personal Data Protection Law
Indicator 2
Open data law for the proactive release of government information
Indicator 3
Freedom of Information Act
Indicator 4
Right to be protected from automated decision-making
Indicator 5
Right to data portability

Other Attributes

Strategic AttributE
Plans for the different contexts of data use and re-use
Regulatory Attribute
Regulation of Data by its Types and/or Uses
REsponsible AttribuTe
Ethics, trust, and human rights implications of data use and re-use
Structural Attribute 
Adapts institutional structures in response to data-driven transformation
Participatory Attribute 
Incorporation of feedback from stakeholders in data governance regime
International Attribute 
Participation in international efforts to establish data governance rules